Farewell UOSM2008, The Real Journey Starts Now- Final Reflection

The Journey Is Never Ending..png
Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva

This module provided an opportunity for me to explore topics on the digital world from different perspectives. My attitude towards digital media and platforms have changed, altering my approaches to maintain online identities and profiles.

I decided to use the reflective cycle framework created by Gibbs (Gibbs, 1988) to carry out an effective analysis of the module. I am able to reflect on my module experience, and identify any changes to my online digital usage.

Description – What Happened?

I enjoyed the flexibility of this module, completing most of the work at home. I felt the most comfortable writing topic posts in my room. I was able to research the topics efficiently using the Web, and asked peers/tutors for guidance using the #UOSM2008 Twitter hashtag.

The module structure provided us students enough time to write, comment and reflect on the topics. Repeating the learning process not only enhanced my knowledge, but improved my writing and analytical skills. I gained further perspectives on the topics investigated, and engaged in interesting conversations.

What I Learnt In This Module – Created by Chloe Cheung using Piktochart

Feelings: What were you thinking and feeling?

Before commencing the module, the syllabus and course structure gave the impression that it would be ‘easy’ to write 300 words for a post.

However, I can assure you that this module was completely the opposite. I invested a lot of time in background research, to gain further understanding on the topics. Finding reliable, trustworthy sources took longer than expected. It required a lot of effort to produce interesting, engaging posts.

As s Computer Scientist, writing is not my strong point. I was quite nervous prior to starting the module, as I felt I did not have the capability to write posts worthy of a first mark. However, my skills have improved significantly over the last couple of months, especially my confidence in writing.

Evaluation: What was good or bad about the experience?

The module was an excellent experience, enhancing my knowledge on topics such as fake news and digital literacy. It made me realise that I take everything I have for granted – I never appreciated the components that make up a successful, resourceful digital world.

Furthermore, I improved my creativity skills, especially when I created infographics and videos. I had not used sites such as Canva and Piktochart before, so I found it incredibly useful to display information aesthetically. As a result, I will definitely be using these platforms for my future projects.

As this module was carried out online, it meant that physical peer interaction was minimal. I would have liked the opportunity to meet my peers in person, getting to know them on a personal level.

My Module Interactions
Interactions During the Module – Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva

Analysis: What sense can you make of the situation?

At the beginning of the module, I completed a digital self test which identified my level of digital knowledge. My results changed, as I learnt new skills that improved my digital media use.

Changes in My Digital Self Test – Created by Chloe Cheung using Piktochart

I realised the impact that online profiling can have, especially establishing my digital presence to expand my network connections. Using platforms such as LinkedIn can leave a ‘satisfactory’ impression to companies, which opens up opportunities and career prospects.

Skills Acquired – Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva

Furthermore, participation in the MOOC was useful. The course was available globally, meaning I was able to converse with individuals from different countries. This was exciting, as I was able to gain different cultural perspectives. I contributed on most of the course topics, and created my own Personal Learning Network (PLN) (FutureLearn, 2017).

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My Personal Learning Network (PLN) Map

I tried to come up with creative titles that would draw the reader’s attention, and this was evident as the module progressed. I was especially happy with ‘Checkmate’, as it was relevant to checking our digital sources regularly.


Conclusion: What else could you have done?

I feel that the overall maintenance of the blog could be improved. After reviewing other blogs, I realised my blog was not presented in a professional manner. Therefore, I would definitely change the blog theme and customisation, increasing its appeal to the reader.

Other forms of infographics could have been used effectively to display information. I decided to use posters and videos for most of my content, as it was visually pleasing. However, interactive resources such as quizzes could have been embedded into the post, reviewing the reader’s understanding and further consolidating their knowledge.

When writing the posts, I often found difficulty in structuring the blog consistently. If I communicated with my peers more frequently, then discussions on the module structure could have improved the overall blog presentation.

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My Conclusion – Created by Chloe Cheung using Powtoon

Action Plan: What would you do next time?

I would definitely spend more time researching the authenticity and reliability of sources. It was difficult to cite sources that were educational and provided by Google Scholar. When presenting arguments in my posts, information did not seem trustworthy.

Also, I learnt techniques to prevent identity concerns and problems. By expanding my network with only the individuals I know, it reduces any risk of identity theft. Furthermore, I am able to spot fake news easily, after my peers provided me with guidance and tips.

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Discussion with Peers on the MOOC about Fake News

Participating in this module provided me an insight on digital profiling, and I will continue to adopt these practices in the future. As I go into my fourth and final year here at university, I need to ensure my professional profiles are maintained effectively, to increase job opportunities. I hope to continue blogging, expressing my opinions and maintain communication with my peers.

Farewell UOSM2008, this is definitely not the end!

Word Count: 903


FutureLearn. (2018). What is a Personal Learning Network (PLN)? – Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/learning-network-age/4/steps/303347 [Accessed 9 May 2018].

Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic. Available at: https://thoughtsmostlyaboutlearning.files.wordpress.com/2015/12/learning-by-doing-graham-gibbs.pdf [Accessed 9 May 2018]

UOSM2008 Conclusion. (2018). Directed by C. Cheung. United Kingdom: PowToon. Available at: https://www.powtoon.com/embed/bCC2JMTuR6j [Accessed 11 May 2018]



What Is Our ‘Real’ Identity?- Topic 3 Reflection

Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva


This week’s topic made me realise how and why we maintain the identities we have. My creativity skills are improving, as illustrated with the juggling analogy in my post. Infographics created are more clear and concise.


My comment on Natalie’s post explored the ways that we can privatise our identities, to prevent any malicious activity. Her reply made me realise that it is impossible to make our online identities completely private. However, precautions can be taken to minimise identity theft, such as adding only people you know.

Surprisingly, the average number of Facebook friends a user has is 338 (Smith, 2014). This already shouts concern- do we need to connect with all of them, especially if we only talk to a handful? I am guilty of this, having 828 friends but probably only talking to a handful. To protect my identity, I know I need to remove irrelevant users.

Furthermore, Shreya’s post made me question the integrity of our identities- can we truly maintain separate, non-overlapping identities? This is where anonymous identities are useful, providing us a way to ‘hide’ our profile on the web (Clear, 2014).

Moreover, online networks may be untrustworthy, with ‘screenshots’ becoming progressively common (Hodkinson, 2016). Conversations can be shown to users, damaging one’s reputation and identity.

Created by Chloe Cheung using Piktochart

As a result, I edited my self-test completed at the start of the module. I feel that I do not maintain my online identity securely, nor do I manage my profiles effectively.

Reducing My Skills in the Self Assessment – Created by Chloe Cheung using Piktochart


In conclusion, I believe that multiple online identities provides us flexibility with our profiles. We can choose to integrate profiles, or keep them independent. Maintaining multiple profiles has been effective for me, and I intend to keep my identities separate. However, the security of our identities is at risk, and it always will be.

Will I Maintain My Identity Differently_
Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva

Word Count: 303


Comment on Natalie’s Post 

Comment on Shreya’s Post (still under moderation)


Hodkinson, P. (2016). Bedrooms and beyond: Youth, identity and privacy on social network sites. New Media & Society, [online] 19(2), pp.272-288. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1461444815605454 [Accessed 27 Apr. 2018].

Martin, C. (2014). Why should I reveal my ‘real identity’ online? Anonymity isn’t so terrible. The Guardian. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jan/15/reveal-real-identity-online-anonymity [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Smith, A. (2014). What people like and dislike about Facebook. [online] Pew Research Center. Available at: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/02/03/what-people-like-dislike-about-facebook/ [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

YouTube. (2017). Best Ways To Protect Yourself Online. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KazBJas29FM [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

The Real Me? – Topic 3


Online profiling is a popular method to publicly advertise personal characteristics and interests. However, users may have several identities across multiple platforms, rather than one consistent identity (FutureLearn, 2017).

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Click on Image to View Video (Created by Chloe Cheung Using PowToon)
Online Identities
Mindmap of my thoughts on online identities (Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva)

Do We Need Online Identities?

In society, learning has migrated to a more digitalised platform, where users can create and access content online (Costa & Torres, 2011). The increase of social media usage indicates the variety of methods used to exchange information (Pew Research Center, 2018).

Users on Social Media Sites (Pew Research Center, 2018)

Users cannot simply use books to obtain information. A wider scope is required. As discussed in topic 2, online identities enhance ‘networked’ learning, allowing further discussions with other members (Futurelearn, 2017).

Single vs Multiple Identities

Building a professional and a personal profile is the key to success. It provides different channels of communication that should not intertwine with each other.

Created by Chloe Cheung Using Piktochart

However, users often forget about their ‘different identities’. Public platforms such as Twitter often contains users who post irresponsible ‘tweets’. The encouragement of ‘trending’ topics can further expose users, revealing their backstory and lifestyle. Sacco was just one of the many to experience this unfortunate event (Ronson, 2012). This emphasises the point: think twice before you speak.


It is up to the individual’s discretion whether they want to maintain one or multiple online identities. Personal profiles can be kept casual and private. Professional profiles should be available to all users on the Web, to enhance career prospects.


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However, authenticity of profiles remains an issue for both adults and children . For example, gaming profiles contain deceptive information, manipulating content to mislead users (Tsikerdekis & Zeadally, 2014). Can we really tell when a profile is deceiving?

Managing multiple identities is like juggling. The more items you juggle, the more risk you take with your actions. The fewer the items, the more control you maintain. Which type are you?

More or Less_
Created by Chloe Cheung Using Canva

Word Count: 301


Aleks, K. (2012). Online identity: is authenticity or anonymity more important?. The Guardian. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/apr/19/online-identity-authenticity-anonymity [Accessed 30 Mar. 2018].

Brandwatch. (2017). 44 Incredible and Interesting Twitter Statistics. [online] Available at: https://www.brandwatch.com/blog/44-twitter-stats/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018].

Costa, C. and Torres, R., 2011. To be or not to be, the importance of Digital Identity in the networked society. Educação, Formação & Tecnologias-ISSN 1646-933X, pp.47-53. Available at: http://eft.educom.pt/index.php/eft/article/view/216/126 [Accessed 1 Apr. 2018]

DiMicco, J.M. and Millen, D.R., 2007, November. Identity management: multiple presentations of self in facebook. In Proceedings of the 2007 international ACM conference on Supporting group work (pp. 383-386). ACM. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018]

FutureLearn. (2017). Information Literacy – Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/learning-network-age/4/steps/303354 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2018].

FutureLearn. (2017). What is your network identity? – Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/learning-network-age/4/steps/303357 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2018].

Hootsuite. (2018). 23+ Useful Instagram Statistics for Social Media Marketers. [online] Available at: https://blog.hootsuite.com/instagram-statistics/ [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018].

Job hunting: How to promote yourself online. (2013). [DVD] Directed by BBC. BBC. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/business-25217962/job-hunting-how-to-promote-yourself-online [Accessed 2 Apr. 2018]

Landau, P. (2011). How your Facebook status could put you out of work. The Guardian. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/money/work-blog/2011/nov/30/facebook-status-work-employer [Accessed 2 Apr. 2018].

Omnicoreagency.com. (2018). Linkedin by the Numbers (2018): Stats, Demographics & Fun Facts. [online] Available at: https://www.omnicoreagency.com/linkedin-statistics/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018].

Online vs. Offline Self: Who is the Real You? | New Age Creators. (2016). New Zealand: New Age Creators. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZAkZ4TzSEA [Accessed 17 Apr. 2018].

Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. (2018). Social Media Fact Sheet. [online] Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/social-media/# [Accessed 4 Apr. 2018].

Ronson, J. (2015). How One Stupid Tweet Blew Up Justine Sacco’s Life. The New York Times Magazine. [online] Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/15/magazine/how-one-stupid-tweet-ruined-justine-saccos-life.html?_r=1 [Accessed 2 Apr. 2018].

Seidman, G. (2014). Can You Really Trust the People You Meet Online?. Psychology Today. [online] Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/close-encounters/201407/can-you-really-trust-the-people-you-meet-online[Accessed 30 Mar. 2018].

Tapscott, D. (2014). Five ways talent management must change. World Economic Forum. [online] Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/10/don-tapscott-talent-management-millennials/ [Accessed 2 Apr. 2018].

Tsikerdekis, M. and Zeadally, S., 2014. Online deception in social media. Communications of the ACM57(9), pp.72-80. Available at: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2629612 [Accessed 3 Apr. 2018]

Young, R. (2017). Your Online Identity: Your Strongest Brand or Worst Nightmare?. Huffington Post. [online] Available at: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/ruth-young/your-online-identity-your_b_9994346.html [Accessed 2 Apr. 2018].

Zephoria. (2018). The Top 20 Valuable Facebook Statistics – Updated March 2018. [online] Available at: https://zephoria.com/top-15-valuable-facebook-statistics/ [Accessed 30 Mar. 2018].




Keeping It Real- Topic 2 Reflection

Topic 2 Reflection
Created by Chloe Cheung Using Canva


I found this week’s topic very engaging, as fake news is an ongoing issue that many online users face. As a result, I commented on three blog posts this week. This furthered my learning, providing a solid understanding on detection, prevention and awareness of fake news.

Media Literacy + Fake News Evaluation

The discussion with Tewsdae made me aware of how information is distributed online. We identified how fake information can affect individuals, especially when social platforms play a ‘distributor’ role (Fox, 2018).

Moreover, statistics show that users have little belief in news shared online by their peers and relatives (Statista, 2018). 61% of participants in this survey had ‘little trust’, which is alarming. We should be able to trust most information sources we find online. If this is not the case, who can we actually trust?

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How much do you trust news that your friends and family share on Facebook? (Statista, 2018)

Furthermore, Lakshay’s post introduced a new perspective of fake news, as individuals align their sentiments with facts to believe information. With filter bubbles, algorithms do not differentiate information. This creates a small, restricted network. Therefore, we should consider how information can evolve on social media, by adapting algorithms to minimise bias (Youtube, 2017).

In addition, the discussion with Nathaniel looked at the younger generation, and their association with fake news. I learnt that educational games exist, helping children to identify fake sources (BBC, 2018).

However, I believe this should be integrated into primary and secondary learning, enforcing the online dangers early on (Kershaw, 2018). Therefore, the risk of believing fake news is significantly reduced.

Created by Chloe Cheung Using Piktochart


In conclusion, the effect of completely removing fake news will be drastic on social media, affecting site functionality (Coren, 2017). Therefore, tools are available online for authenticating information. I believe we need to encourage this, to minimise fake news beliefs. However, are we certain that these tools are not fake?

Word Count: 302


Comment on Tewsdae’s Post

Comment on Lakshay’s Post

Comment on Nathaniel’s Post


Fox, M. (2018). Fake news spreads further, faster on social media. Euronews. [online] Available at: http://www.euronews.com/2018/03/08/fake-news-lies-spread-faster-social-media-truth-does-n854896 [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

Statista. (2018). How much do you trust news that your friends and family share on Facebook?. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/652584/trust-facebook-news-usa/ [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

YouTube. (2017). Fact Checking in a Fast-Paced Social Media Driven World | Linda Beck | TEDxHarrisburg. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Im6X5F8nQAI [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

BBC (2018). BBC takes ‘fake news’ battle global as interactive game launched in UK. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/mediacentre/latestnews/2018/school-report-fake-news [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

Kershaw, A. (2018). School children ‘should be taught to recognise fake news’. Independent. [online] Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/school-children-taught-recognise-fake-news-donald-trump-andreas-schleicher-a7636251.html [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

Coren, M. (2017). Ending fake news means changing how Wall Street values Facebook and Twitter. Quartz. [online] Available at: https://qz.com/1099581/blame-wall-street-for-fake-news/ [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

Checkmate. (Check Your Sources, Mate) – Topic 2


The mountains are yearning. (1)

We live in a world where information is available 24/7. Information can be obtained through learning networks, online and physical resources (FutureLearn, 2017). However, the challenge lies in constructing a consistent method for analysing authenticity of information.

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Click on Image to View Video (Created by Chloe Cheung Using PowToon)

Media Literacy

I believe media literacy is significant to our learning, especially when we need to practice the different techniques required to analyse and process information (Thoman & Jolls, 2008).

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Information That Is Searched On the Internet By A Range of Users (Ofcom, 2017)

The rise in ‘fake news’ can be alarming, especially when individuals cannot distinguish genuine information from fabricated content. From my experience, I immediately know that sites like The Onion are satirical. Therefore, I take information with a pinch of salt. However, individuals may misinterpret the information, as it sounds realistic (Fife, 2016).

Design Thinking
Created By Chloe Cheung Using Canva

Fake News 

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Created By Chloe Cheung Using Venngage

Compare and Contrast

Arguably, media and information literacy are similar. Expanding our network is useful for enhancing knowledge. However, online presence can be dangerous. Users may forge identities to ‘catfish’, tricking individuals to believe their fake profile (Seidman, 2014).

To prevent my personal information being used for ‘fake profiling’, my network connections on platforms such as LinkedIn and Facebook are with trusted peers. Otherwise, individuals may not be able to distinguish the ‘real’ me and the reliability of my information.

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Ultimately, literacy skills depends on digital differences. I believe age is a setback. The ‘Net Generation’ have more experience on the Web. Therefore, their ability to identify fake information should be better compared to the older generation (Jones et al, 2010).

How to Find Trustworthy Sources?

Authenticity of information can be guaranteed using online tools. Through the MOOC, I learnt a variety of useful methods.

Created By Chloe Cheung Using Canva


‘Checkmate’. Not in chess terms, but ‘check, mate’. Check the sources thoroughly. Discussions with my peers on the MOOC has highlighted the importance of analysing sources. This is a learning curve individuals should not forget.

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Participation in the MOOC, Explaining My Own Experience With Online Tools
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Discussion on How To Analyse a Fake News Article

Word Count: 304


FutureLearn. (2017). Information Literacy – Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/learning-network-age/4/steps/303354 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Online Information – Reliability. (2018). Directed by C. Cheung. United Kingdom: PowToon. Available at: https://www.powtoon.com/embed/dZWKwZVdWIM/ [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018]

FutureLearn. (2017). Media Literacy – Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/learning-network-age/4/steps/303353 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. (2000). [online] Chicago: American Library Association, pp.2-15. Available at: https://alair.ala.org/handle/11213/7668 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Thoman, E. and Jolls, T., 2008. Literacy for the 21st Century: An Overview and Orientation Guide to Media Literacy Education. Theory CML MedicaLit Kit. Center for Media Literacy. Avaialable at: http://medialit.org/sites/default/files/01a_mlkorientation_rev2.pdf [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Ofcom (2017). Adults’ media use and attitudes. [online] Ofcom, p.99. Available at: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/102755/adults-media-use-attitudes-2017.pdf [Accessed 8 Mar. 2018].

Fife, J., 2016. Peeling The Onion: Satire and the Complexity of Audience Response. Rhetoric Review35(4), pp.322-334. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07350198.2016.1215000 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Trevisan, F. (2018). In Italy, fake news helps populists and far-right triumph. The Conversation. [online] Available at: https://theconversation.com/in-italy-fake-news-helps-populists-and-far-right-triumph-92271 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Fox, S., & Duggan, M. (2013). Health online 2013. Available at: http://www.pewinternet. org/2013/01/15/health-online-2013/ [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Lober WB., & Flowers JL. Consumer empowerment in health care amid the Internet and social media. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2011 Aug;27(3):169–82. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soncn.2011.04.002 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Dalmer, N.K., 2017. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA105(1), p.61. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/23311886.2017.1302785?needAccess=true [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Ibrahim, I. (2018). Fake news’ hurts businesses and economy, say trade groups. Yahoo News. [online] Available at: https://sg.news.yahoo.com/fake-news-hurts-businesses-economy-trade-groups-231900328.html [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Quinn, B. (2017). Russia is biggest culprit of spreading fake news, says survey of UK social media users. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/media/2017/dec/31/fake-news-survey-russia-main-culprit-uk-social-media-users [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Koohikamali, M. and Sidorova, A., 2017. Information Re-Sharing on Social Network Sites in the Age of Fake News. Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline20, pp.215-235. Available at: http://www.inform.nu/Articles/Vol20/ISJv20p215-235Koohikamali3604.pdf [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Seidman, G. (2014). Can You Really Trust the People You Meet Online?. Psychology Today. [online] Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/close-encounters/201407/can-you-really-trust-the-people-you-meet-online [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].

Jones, C., Ramanau, R., Cross, S. and Healing, G. (2010). Net generation or Digital Natives: Is there a distinct new generation entering university?. Computers & Education, [online] 54(3), pp.722-732. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131509002620 [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018].



Keep the Divide in Maths, Not Digitally – Topic 1 Reflection

Minimise the Digital Divide
Time for Reflection (Created by Chloe Cheung using Canva)


I was impressed by the different infographics that my peers created. Videos and posters were informative, showing off their flair and creativity! Furthermore, I found out how different factors shaped digital usage.

Digital Differences Evaluation

I enjoyed reading the digital differences that we all have. Before, I believed that specific factors would have more impact on how one uses technology and the Internet. However, I was proven wrong. Individuals can overcome the more ‘challenging’ factors, such as disability.

Chloe’s post provided another perspective towards digital differences. After discussing about MOOCs, I realised it may not be so ‘educational’. I always thought they were resourceful for everyone, as it is accessed globally and free to use. However, many MOOCs have evolved, where users can pay for ‘premium’ content (Shah, 2017). This deprives those who cannot afford it.

Online education can benefit users, especially when uncontrollable factors affect their digital usage. Take a look at this video to understand why.

After reading Hong’s post, I realised that our digital differences were quite similar. Coming from a Computer Science background, both of our digital literacy skills were above adequate. I learnt that digital access has impact on additional factors, such as healthcare and jobs.

Statistics show that digital access for users with disabilities is lower (Ofcom, 2017). Therefore, the NHS aims to invest £1.1 million to support digital inclusion (Gov.uk, 2017). I think this is a necessary approach, to encourage all users to use the Web confidently.

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Digital Access for Disabled and Non-Disabled Users (Ofcom, 2017)
Reflection (Created by Chloe Cheung using Piktochart)


In conclusion, I believe the digital divide will always remain. Being a ‘digital resident’ (White & Cornu, 2017) is not easy, as many factors restrict digital literacy. Some factors we can overcome easily. But for uncontrollable factors, we can only wait and see what happens. The future paves way for digital inclusion, but also digital divide.

Word Count: 306


Comment on Hong’s Post

Comment on Chloe’s Post


Dhawal, S. (2017). MOOCs Started Out Completely Free. Where Are They Now?. EdSurge. [online] Available at: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2017-04-20-moocs-started-out-completely-free-where-are-they-now [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018].

YouTube. (2012). Daphne Koller: What we’re learning from online education. [online] Available at: https://youtu.be/U6FvJ6jMGHU [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018].

Ofcom. (2017). p.5. Available at: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0030/98508/access-inclusion-report-2016.pdf [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018].

Gov.uk. (2017). 2. Digital skills and inclusion – giving everyone access to the digital skills they need – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-digital-strategy/2-digital-skills-and-inclusion-giving-everyone-access-to-the-digital-skills-they-need [Accessed 2 Mar. 2018].

White, David S.; Le Cornu, Alison. Using ‘Visitors and Residents’ to visualise digital practices. First Monday, [S.l.], July 2017. ISSN 13960466. Available at: http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/7802/6515  [Accessed 2nd Mar 2018]

Learning Never Exhausts The Mind (Leonardo da Vinci) – Can Online Learning Challenge This? -Topic 1


The term ‘digital differences’ considers the inequalities and factors that affect one’s access to technology (FutureLearn, 2018). This consists of age, gender and more. The list does not stop here, showing the diversity of digital differences.

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Made by Chloe Cheung using PowToon (Click on Image to View Video)

Individuals may choose to not use the Web, as they feel it is not relevant to their lifestyle. Often, those who have not been exposed to technology in early years will continue this trend (Zickuhr & Smith, 2012). Social exclusion is another matter, as lack of digital access leaves users at a disadvantage (Halford & Savage, 2010).

In my opinion, excluding digital use would be damaging, considering my main form of communication depends on digital applications.

Digital Differences & Factors

From research to entertainment, the Internet is a platform that provides users the ability to carry out tasks effectively. The rise of Internet use implies the popularity of digital practices (Ofcom, 2016), at work or at home.

Internet Use
Graph Taken from Ofcom Report (2016)

Additionally, digital differences can have a positive effect on learning, exploiting the full potential of digital media (Lutz & Hoffmann, 2017). However, this is not representative for all users because, there are indirect factors which can affect the statistics. These can be identified as macro and personal factors.

Digital Differences Factors
Macro and Personal Factors (Made by Chloe Cheung using Canva)

Impact of Digital Differences

Investigating further into the topic of digital differences, I explored the impact that factors have on my digital differences.

new-piktochart_28158830 (3)
Impact of Factors on My Digital Differences (Made by Chloe Cheung using Piktochart)


I found that my digital usage was influenced mainly by my cultural background.  Although I have a British nationality, my digital usage correlates with users from Hong Kong (KPMG, 2017). Perhaps this is influenced by my parents, who use mainstream Chinese applications.

Social Media Engagement in Hong Kong and China (KPMG, 2017)

I am glad that my digital differences are not heavily manipulated by these factors. I am provided with many digital opportunities, enriching my learning capabilities. This is reflected in the MOOC I am participating in.

Screen Shot 2018-02-25 at 14.59.06
Evaluation of my digital differences on the online MOOC (FutureLearn, 2018)


Word Count: 303


FutureLearn. (2018). Page from Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/learning-network-age/4/steps/303344 [Accessed 20 Feb. 2018].

Digital Differences. (2018). Directed by C. Cheung. United Kingdom: PowToon. Available at: https://www.powtoon.com/embed/cLZvcPSUMZR/ [Accessed 21 Feb 2018]

Zickuhr, K. and Smith, A. (2012). PEW Internet. [online] PEW Internet and American Life Project. Available at: http://www.english.illinois.edu/-people-/faculty/debaron/482/482readings/PEW_Class.pdf  [Accessed 20 Feb. 2018].

Halford, S. and Savage, M. (2010). RECONCEPTUALIZING DIGITAL SOCIAL INEQUALITY. Information, Communication & Society, [online] 13(7), pp.937-955. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2010.499956 [Accessed 20 Feb. 2018].

Ofcom. (2016). Section 5: Digital Media Take-Up and Use. [online] Available at: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/102772/section-5-digital-media.pdf [Accessed 20 Feb. 2018].

Lutz, C. and Hoffmann, C. (2017). The dark side of online participation: exploring non-, passive and negative participation. Information, Communication & Society, [online] 20(6), pp.876-897. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1293129?needAccess=true [Accessed 20 Feb. 2018].

Solon, O. (2017). Your browsing history may be up for sale soon. Here’s what you need to know. The Guardian. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/mar/28/internet-service-providers-sell-browsing-history-house-vote [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

Jones, C., Ramanau, R., Cross, S. and Healing, G. (2010). Net generation or Digital Natives: Is there a distinct new generation entering university?. Computers & Education, [online] 54(3), pp.722-732. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131509002620 [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

Martínez-Cantos, J. (2017). Digital skills gaps: A pending subject for gender digital inclusion in the European Union. European Journal of Communication, [online] 32(5), pp.419-438. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0267323117718464 [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

Enoch, Y. and Soker, Z. (2006). Age, gender, ethnicity and the digital divide: university students’ use of web‐based instruction. Open Learning, [online] 21(2), pp.99-110. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02680510600713045 [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

Campbell, J. (2017). China VS Hong Kong: One Country Two eCommerce Ecosystems | TongDigital. [online] Tong Digital. Available at: http://www.tongdigital.com/2017/12/06/china-vs-hong-kong-one-country-two-ecommerce-ecosystems/ [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

Nau, S.Z., 2017. From Understanding Net Generation Expectation to Sustainable Student Engagement. In Sustainability, Green IT and Education Strategies in the Twenty-first Century (pp. 63-76). Springer, Cham. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-57070-9_4   [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018]

Lunceford, B. and Rockwell, S. (2017). Reconsidering the Net Generation: Putting the focus back on the technological landscape. Explorations in Media Ecology, [online] 16(1), pp.91-100. Available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/intellect/eme/2017/00000016/00000001/art00008 [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

KPMG (2017). Outlook of E-Commerce in Hong Kong. [online] Hong Kong: KPMG, GS1, p.30. Available at: https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/cn/pdf/en/2017/11/outlook-for-e-commerce-in-hong-kong.pdf [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].

What Is The Good Of Experience If You Do Not Really Reflect? – Frederick the Great

Created using Canva


After reviewing blog posts created by my peers, I realised the difficulty in writing a concise, creative post that would appeal to readers. The word limit itself is a challenge to overcome, but the real task lies in the use of attractive infographics.

Digital Immigrants vs. Digital Natives Reflection

Finding other perspectives on this debate further enhanced my understanding. Joanna’s post explained how the age of an individual does not define a ‘native’ or ‘immigrant’, especially with the rise of the ‘silver surfers’ emerging (Whittaker-Wood, 2017). This was particularly intriguing, as I thought age was a crucial factor in determining digital skills (The Guardian, 2017).

Furthermore, statistics from the Office of National Statistics (ONS) show the small divide between age groups of Internet users (ONS, 2017). This agrees that age does not correlate to digital literacy. Support is available to enhance skills, especially for older users (see video below).

Internet Users and Age Groups
Age of Internet Users in the UK (2017)

Sam’s post discussed activities that users undertake determine their profile. The continuum is constantly developed to analyse the relationship between users and the Web (White & Le Cornu, 2017). I agree that simple tasks such as liking pictures and sharing posts can define a ‘native’, identifying users as ‘tech-savvy’ (Kennedy et al, 2010). However, I am unsure whether this remain true in the future, especially when newer services such as MOOCs are changing the way we use the web (Laurillard, 2017).



In conclusion, I learnt that I encompass traits from both ‘native’ and ‘immigrant’ definitions. This places me in the middle of the continuum. However, it is interesting to identify this debate as a ‘myth’. There is no clear evidence that the younger generation like us are residents, and that this is all based on ‘fashion’ than evidence (Stillman, 2017). With technological advances still shaping the society, I am intrigued to see how this continuum will develop.

Word Count: 310 words


My comment on Sam’s Blog

My comment on Joanna’s Blog


Whittaker-Wood, F. (2017). The Rise Of The Silver Surfer: How Technology Is Enriching The Lives Of The Aging Population. [Blog] Huffington Post. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/fran-whittakerwood/the-rise-of-the-silver-su_b_16255428.html [Accessed 17 Feb. 2018].

The Guardian (2017). Millennial bug: why the ‘digital native’ is a myth. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/shortcuts/2017/ aug/01/digital-native-tech-savvy-teenager-is-a-myth [Accessed 17 Feb. 2018].

Office of National Statistics (2017). Internet users in the UK: 2017. Office of National Statistics, pp.2-3. Available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/businessindustryandtrade/itandinternetindustry/bulletins/internetusers/2017 [Accessed 17th Feb 2018]

White, David S.; Le Cornu, Alison. Using ‘Visitors and Residents’ to visualise digital practices. First Monday, [S.l.], July 2017. ISSN 13960466. Available at: http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/7802/6515  [Accessed 17th Feb 2018]

Kennedy, G., Judd, T., Dalgarno, B. and Waycott, J. (2010). Beyond natives and immigrants: exploring types of net generation students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, [online] 26(5), pp.332-343. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00371.x/full [Accessed 17 Feb. 2018].

Laurillard, D. (2017). Moocs can still bring higher education to those who really need it. [Blog] Times Higher Education. Available at: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/moocs-can-still-bring-higher-education-those-who-really-need-it [Accessed 18 Feb. 2018].

Stillman, J. (2017). The Idea of the ‘Digital Native’ Is a Total Myth, Science Says. [Blog] Inc. Available at: https://www.inc.com/jessica-stillman/science-digital-natives-are-no-better-at-tech-than.html) [Accessed 17 Feb. 2018].

UOSM2008 Introductory Post

Digital Natives and Immigrants

Prensky (2001) identified the term ‘digital natives’, describing users who are very experienced with the Web. This looks at the younger generation (‘millenials’) in particular, who are highly skilled (Howe and Strauss, 2000, 2003). Digital immigrants are users who lack the digital skills, and find the Web a difficult environment to navigate.

What defines a native and immigrant can vary per individual. In my opinion, there is no clear distinguishing between the two profiles, as a user would possess traits from both identities. Not all immigrants are lacking in digital literacy. Similarly, not all natives use the Web constantly. There is a compromise between both profiles, in order to utilise the Web efficiently.

Self Test and Digital Profile

To evaluate my current digital literacies, a self test was carried out. This takes into account Prensky’s definition of users on the Web, and what profile I fall under.

self-test_27973492 (4).png


It was interesting to evaluate the amount of time I had spent online. Due to the nature of my course, it was inevitable that I would utilise the Web for coding purposes. However, my digital literacies are lacking in certain areas, especially developing a healthy online profile for other users to view.

My results indicate I am a ‘ digital resident’ in certain aspects, particularly when a proportion of my life is spent online to use social media platforms such as Facebook (White & Cornu, 2011). Yet I am also a visitor, who uses the Web to complete tasks for educational purposes.

I would identify myself as part of the ‘Net Generation’, being able to adapt to the technologies quickly. Understanding the use of technologies is intuitive, and communication is mostly carried out through digital devices (WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger and Phone Calls) (Lorenzo & Dziuban, 2006).


Word Count: 298 


[1] Prensky, M., 2001. Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the horizon9(5), pp.1-6.

[2] Howe, N. & Strauss, W.(2000). Millennials rising: the next great generation. New York: Vintage.

[3] White, D and Cornu, A. L. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. Available: http://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049. 

[4] Lorenzo, G. and Dziuban, C., 2006. Ensuring the net generation is net savvy. Educause learning initiative2.

About Me

I am an third year Undergraduate student studying MEng Computer Science at the University of Southampton. I have an interest in Web development and have coded in several languages including Java, PHP, HTML and CSS.

I am involved in the student union, taking on the role as Faculty Officer for Physical Sciences and Engineering. I have previously taken other responsible roles such as Events and Activities Officer for Chamberlain Halls, and Secretary position for ABACUS society (Association of the British and Chinese University Students).